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The significance of mimicking cell phenotype in mechanical environments typically found in vivo is an emerging theme in stem cell therapy and one that leverages major national research investments, in nanoscience, systems biology and regenerative medicine. Importantly, it has recently been shown that cellular responses to the nanoscale mechanical environment must also be considered alongside biochemical stimuli in order to understand, control functional adaptation and pathological conditions within the human body. This research programme brings together an interdisciplinary team of scientists who work in the fields of nanomechanics and systems biology to identify the molecular mechanism(s) of nanomechanical transduction in cells. The applications of the research are potentially huge to the medical device industry, for example in designing the next generation of vascular stents. Our intent is to produce functional biological nanostructures to address two main problems facing conventional implants, the use of biotolerable rather than biocompatible materials and the use of materials with mechanical properties poorly matched to their surrounding environment. Our target structures will be adaptive, whereby mechanical properties can be tuned in situ via optical, thermal or biochemical stimuli whilst also incorporating drug eluting surfaces or stem cell implanted scaffolds to improve biocompatibility. Design will be aided by the use of computational modeling and systems biology techniques. This programme promises to produce a new class of biomaterials that will revolutionize the biomedical device industry.